An investigation found that 46 physicians in Texas who have been disciplined by the state medical board have received more than $800,000 from pharmaceutical firms since 2009. Dr. Howard Brody, director of the Institute for the Medical Humanities at UTMB Health, questioned why any doctor should be compensated by drug companies to tout their drugs. “We are just kind of in denial about this,” he said. “And this has perpetuated — this willingness of doctors to take this stuff that if they were lawyers, and if they were journalists, red lights would’ve been going off a long time ago. Bells would be ringing. People would be shrieking about unethical behavior. And somehow in medicine, this came to be tolerated.” Medical ethicist Brody said that if a drug works, companies shouldn’t have to pay doctors for promotion.